الامبراطوريه الرومانيه

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعه الحره
روح على: استكشاف، تدوير
Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR)
("The Senate and People of Rome")
[nb 1]
Roman Empire

27 BC–AD 476/1453
 

Vexillum with aquila and Roman state acronym

أقصى اتساع للإمبراطورية الرومانية فى عهد تراجان سنة 117 م
العاصمه Rome was the sole political capital until AD 286
There were several political centres during the Tetrarchy while Rome continued to be the nominal, cultural, and ideological capital.
Constantine re-founded and established the city of Constantinople as the new capital of the empire in 330.[1]
Mediolanum (Milan) was its western counterpart during the increasingly frequent East/West divisions. The western imperial court was later relocated to Ravenna.
لغات Latin, Greek
الديانه Polytheism and Roman imperial cult
(to 380)

Christianity
(from 380)
Government Autocracy
Emperor
 - 27 BC–AD 14 Augustus
 - 378–395 Theodosius I
 - 475–476 / 1449–1453 Romulus Augustus / Constantine XI
Legislature Roman Senate
Historical era Classical antiquity
 - Battle of Actium 2 September 31 BC
 - Octavian proclaimed Augustus 27 BC
 - Diocletian splits imperial administration between East and West 285
 - Constantine the Great establishes Constantinople as a new imperial capital 330
 - Death of Theodosius the Great, followed by permanent division of the Empire into eastern and western halves 395
 - Deposition of western emperor Romulus Augustus/Fall of Constantinople * AD 476/1453
المساحه
 - 25 BC[2][3] 2,750,000 km2 (1,061,781 sq mi)
 - 50[2] 4,200,000 km2 (1,621,629 sq mi)
 - 117[2] 5,000,000 km2 (1,930,511 sq mi)
 - 390 [2] 4,400,000 km2 (1,698,849 sq mi)
Population
 - 25 BC[2][3] est. 56,800,000 
     كثافه سكانيه 20.7 /km2  (53.5 /sq mi)
 - 117[2] est. 88,000,000 
     ‏كثافه سكانيه 17.6 /km2  (45.6 /sq mi)
عمله (a) 27 BC – AD 212: 1 gold aureus (1/40 lb. of gold, devalued to 1/50 lb. by 212) = 25 silver denarii = 100 bronze sesterces = 400 copper asses.
(b) 294–312: 1 gold aureus solidus (1/60 lb. of gold) = 10 silver argentei = 40 bronze folles = 1,000 debased metal denarii
(c) 312 onwards: 1 gold solidus (1/72 lb.) = 24 silver siliquae = 180 bronze folles
دلوقتى جزء من
البانيا
الجزاير
اندورا
ارمنيا
النمسا
ازربيجان
بلجيكا
البوسنه و الهرسك
بلغاريا
كرواتيا
قبرص
مصر
فرنسا
جورجيا
المانيا
اليونان
المجر
العراق
اسرائيل
ايطاليا
الاردن
كوسوفو
لبنان
ليبيا
لشتنشتاين
لوكسمبورج
مقدونيا
مالطا
مولدوفا
موناكو
مونتنجرو
المغرب
هولندا
البرتغال
رومانيا
سان مارينو
السعوديه
صربيا
سلوفاكيا
سلوفينيا
اسبانيا
سويسرا
سوريا
تونس
تركيا
اوكرانيا
المملكه المتحده
الفاتيكان

الامبراطورية الرومانية هى تطور للحكم السياسى لروما .الإمبراطورية الرومانية هى المرحلة اللى جت بعد الجمهوريه الرومانيه اللى حكمت روما.

الرومان[تعديل]

الرومان هم شعب استقر في وسط شبه الجزيرة الإيطالية ابتداء من القرن الاتناشر قبل الميلاد واسسو مدينة روما القديمة و اسسو دولة سيطرت على شبه الجزيرة الإيطالية و اتوسعت الدولة الرومانية وسيطرت على معظم العالم القديم .

مصادر[تعديل]

  1. Constantine I (306–337 AD) by Hans A. Pohlsander. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 2004-1-8. Retrieved 2007-3-20.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History (Duke University Press) 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 10.2307/1170959. 
  3. John D. Durand, Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation, 1977, pp. 253–296.

ملاحظات[تعديل]

  1. Since classical and modern concepts of state do not coincide, other possibilities include Res publica Romana, Imperium Romanum or Romanorum (also in Greek: Βασιλείᾱ τῶν Ῥωμαίων – Basileíā tôn Rhōmaíōn – ["Dominion (Literally 'kingdom') of the Romans"]) and Romania. Res publica, as a term denoting the Roman "commonwealth" in general, can refer to both the Republican and the Imperial era, while Imperium Romanum (or, sometimes, Romanorum) is used to refer to the territorial extent of Roman authority. Populus Romanus, "the Roman people", is often used for the Roman state dealing with other nations. The term Romania, initially a colloquial term for the empire's territory as well as the collectivity of its inhabitants, appears in Greek and Latin sources from the fourth century onward and was eventually carried over to the Byzantine Empire. (See Wolff, R.L. "Romania: The Latin Empire of Constantinople". In: Speculum, 23 (1948), pp. 1–34 (pp. 2–3).)