حرب التلاتين سنه

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعه الحره
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حرب التلاتين سنه
The Hanging by Jacques Callot.jpg
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) بريشة چاك كالوت, 1632.
التاريخ 1618–1648
المكان Europe (primarily present day Germany)
النتيجه Peace of Westphalia
Belligerents
Protestant States and Allies

Sweden Sweden
 France[1]
 Bohemia
دنمارك Denmark-Norway (1625-1629)[2]
 Saxony
 United Provinces
Electoral Palatinate
Brunswick-Lüneburg Arms.svg Brunswick-Lüneburg
 England[3]
 Scotland
Brandenburg-Prussia
Transylvania
Hungarian Anti-Habsburg Rebels[4]
Zaporozhian Cossacks[بحاجة لمصدر]
 Ottoman Empire

Roman Catholic States and Allies

 Holy Roman Empire[5]

Spain and its possessions
دنمارك Denmark-Norway (1643-1645)[2]

Commanders
Sweden Gustavus II Adolphus 

Sweden Johan Banér
Sweden Lennart Torstenson
Sweden Carl Gustaf Wrangel
Sweden Charles X Gustav
Kingdom of France Louis XIII of France
Kingdom of France Cardinal Richelieu
Kingdom of France Marquis de Feuquieres 
Kingdom of France Louis II de Bourbon
Kingdom of France Vicomte de Turenne
Bohemia Frederick V
Bohemia Jindrich Matyas Thurn
Bohemia Christian I of Anhalt-Bernburg
دنمارك Christian IV of Denmark
Electorate of Saxony Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar
Electorate of Saxony Johann Georg I of Saxony
Dutch Republic Maurice of Nassau
Dutch Republic Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Dutch Republic William of Nassau
Dutch Republic Frederik Hendrik of Orange
Dutch Republic Maarten Tromp
Dutch Republic Ernst Casimir
Dutch Republic Hendrik Casimir I
Kingdom of England Duke of Buckingham
Kingdom of Scotland Earl of Leven
Gabriel Bethlen
Ernst von Mansfeld
Christian of Brunswick
Bohdan Khmelnytsky[بحاجة لمصدر]

Holy Roman Empire Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly 

Holy Roman Empire Albrecht von Wallenstein
Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand II
Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Empire Franz von Mercy 
Holy Roman Empire Johann von Werth
Holy Roman EmpireGottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim
Fahne Kurbayern.gif Maximilian I
اسبانيا Philip IV of Spain
اسبانيا Count-Duke of Olivares
اسبانيا Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
اسبانيا Ambrosio Spinola
اسبانيا Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
اسبانيا Gómez Suárez de Figueroa
اسبانيا Fadrique de Toledo
اسبانيا Antonio de Oquendo
اسبانيا Francisco de Melo
اسبانيا Diego Felipez de Guzmán

Strength
495,000 men:
  • 150,000 Swedish
  • 20,000 Danish & Norwegian
  • 75,000 Dutch
  • Approx: 100-150,000 Germans
  • 150,000 French
  • 20-30,000 Hungarians (Anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels)
  • 6,000 Transylvanians
    [6]
450,000 men:
  • 300,000 Spanish (includes soldiers from the Spanish Netherlands and Italy)
  • 100-200,000 Germans
  • Approx: 20,000 Hungarian and Croatian cavalry[7]
Casualties and losses
8,000,000.[8]

حرب التلاتين سنه من سنة 1618 لسنة 1648 حصلت فى المنطقه اللى دلوقتى تبقا المانيا لكن فى أوقات مختلفه شملت معظم بلاد أوروبا و كانت واحده من أكتر الصراعات المدمرة فى تاريخ اوروبا . أصل النزاع و أهداف المشاركين كانت معقده ، و مش ممكن وصف سبب واحد إنه السبب الرئيسى للحرب. فى البداية ، كان سبب الحرب لحد كبير الصراع الدينى بين البروتستانت و الكاتوليك فى الامبراطوريه الرومانيه المقدسه.

مصادر[تعديل]

  1. George Ripley, Charles Anderson Dana, The American Cyclopaedia, New York, 1874, p. 250, "...the standard of France was white, sprinkled with golden fleur de lis...". *[1] The original Banner of France was strewn with fleurs-de-lis. *[2]:on the reverse of this plate it says: "Le pavillon royal était véritablement le drapeau national au dix-huitième siecle...Vue du chateau d'arrière d'un vaisseau de guerre de haut rang portant le pavillon royal (blanc, avec les armes de France)."  "Flag". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Flag.: "The oriflamme and the Chape de St Martin were succeeded at the end of the 16th century, when Henry III., the last of the house of Valois, came to the throne, by the white standard powdered with fleurs-de-lis. This in turn gave place to the famous tricolour." France entered the war in 1635.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 1625-1629. Aligned with the Catholic Powers 1643-1645.
  3. At war with Spain 1625-30 (and France 1627-29).
  4. Scores Hungarians was fall into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620. Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. ISBN 963-547-070-3
  5.  "Flag". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Flag.: "The Austrian imperial standard has, on a yellow ground, the black double-headed eagle, on the breast and wings of which are imposed shields bearing the arms of the provinces of the empire. The flag is bordered all round, the border being composed of equal-sided triangles with their apices alternately inwards and outwards, those with their apices pointing inwards being alternately yellow and white, the others alternately scarlet and black ." Also, Whitney Smith, Flags through the ages and across the world, McGraw-Hill, England, 1975 ISBN 0-07-059093-1, pp.114 - 119, "The imperial banner was a golden yellow cloth...bearing a black eagle...The double-headed eagle was finally established by Sigismund as regent...".
  6. Gabriel Bethlen's army numbered 5,000 Hungarian pikeman and 1,000 German mercenary, with the anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels numbered together approx. 35,000 men. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1
  7. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1
  8. Norman Davies, Europe, p.568