↑Biesinger (2006: 699): "On August 23, 1942, the Germans began their attack."
↑"Battle of Stalingrad". Encyclopædia Britannica. "By the end of August, … Gen. Friedrich Paulus, with 330,000 of the German Army's finest troops… approached Stalingrad. On August 23 a German spearhead penetrated the city's northern suburbs, and the Luftwaffe rained incendiary bombs that destroyed most of the city's wooden housing."