كاربون

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعه الحره
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boronكربونطزnitrogen
-

C

Si
Appearance
clear (diamond) & black (graphite)


Spectral lines of Carbon
General properties
Name, symbol, number كربونطز, C, 6
Pronunciation /ˈkɑrbən/
Element category nonmetal
Group, period, block 142, p
Standard atomic weight 12.0107(8)
Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p2 or [He] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell 2,4 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase Solid
Density (near r.t.) amorphous:[1] 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Sublimation point 3915 K, 3642 °C, 6588 °F
Triple point 4600 K (4327°C), 10800[2][3] kPa
Heat of fusion 117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 8.517(graphite),
6.155(diamond) J·mol−1·K−1
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3 [4], 2, 1 [5], 0, -1, -2, -3, -4[6]
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Miscellanea
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[7]
Thermal conductivity 119-165 (graphite)
900-2300 (diamond) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond) [8] µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s−1
Young's modulus 1050 (diamond) [8] GPa
Shear modulus 478 (diamond) [8] GPa
Bulk modulus 442 (diamond) [8] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.1 (diamond) [8]
Mohs hardness 1-2 (Graphite)
10 (Diamond)
CAS registry number 7440-44-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of كربونطز
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP

15

12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β- 0.156 14N
local p = {}

local getArgs

function p._navbar(args) local titleArg = 1

if args.collapsible then titleArg = 2 if not args.plain then args.mini = 1 end if args.fontcolor then args.fontstyle = 'color:' .. args.fontcolor .. ';' end args.style = 'float:left; text-align:left; width:6em;' end

local titleText = args[titleArg] or (':' .. mw.getCurrentFrame():getParent():getTitle()) local title = mw.title.new(mw.text.trim(titleText), 'Template');

if not title then error('Invalid title ' .. titleText) end

local talkpage = title.talkPageTitle and title.talkPageTitle.fullText or ;

local div = mw.html.create():tag('div') div :addClass('plainlinks') :addClass('hlist') :addClass('navbar') :cssText(args.style)

if args.mini then div:addClass('mini') end

if not (args.mini or args.plain) then div :tag('span') :css('word-spacing', 0) :cssText(args.fontstyle) :wikitext(args.text or 'This box:') :wikitext(' ') end

if args.brackets then div :tag('span') :css('margin-right', '-0.125em') :cssText(args.fontstyle) :wikitext('[') :newline(); end

local ul = div:tag('ul');

ul :tag('li') :addClass('nv-view') :wikitext('') :tag('span') :attr('title', 'View this template') :cssText(args.fontstyle) :wikitext(args.mini and 'v' or 'view') :done() :wikitext('') :done() :tag('li') :addClass('nv-talk') :wikitext('') :tag('span') :attr('title', 'Discuss this template') :cssText(args.fontstyle) :wikitext(args.mini and 't' or 'talk') :done() :wikitext('');

if not args.noedit then ul :tag('li') :addClass('nv-edit') :wikitext('[' .. title:fullUrl('action=edit') .. ' ') :tag('span') :attr('title', 'Edit this template') :cssText(args.fontstyle) :wikitext(args.mini and 'e' or 'edit') :done() :wikitext(']'); end

if args.brackets then div :tag('span') :css('margin-left', '-0.125em') :cssText(args.fontstyle) :wikitext(']') :newline(); end

if args.collapsible then div :done() :tag('span') :css('font-size', '110%') :cssText(args.fontstyle) :wikitext(args[1]) end

return tostring(div:done()) end

function p.navbar(frame) if not getArgs then getArgs = require('Module:Arguments').getArgs end return p._navbar(getArgs(frame)) end

return p · r

الكربون هو عنصر كيماوى عدده الذرى 6 و هو واحد من عناصر مجموعة الاربعتاشر فى الجدول الدورى للعناصر

مصادر[تعديل]

  1. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  2. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14: 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43: 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  4. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP". Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  5. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical". Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  6. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  7. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database